How to change folder/files permission and ownership in linux

For ownership:-

chown <owner-user>:<owner-group> <file or directory>


chown cti.cti /var/log/cx

in the above example, cti.cti is user and /var/log/cx is a folder. Similarly using -R option, the ownership of all the files and folders can be changed recursively.


chown -R cti.cti /var/log/cx

For Permission:-

The chmod command changes the access mode of one file or multiple files.


The syntax for the chmod command is:

chmod [option] mode files


Option Description
-R Descend directory arguments recursively while setting modes.
-f Suppress error messages if command fails.


Mode Description
Who u=user, g=group, o=other, a=all (default)
Opcode + means add permission
– means remove permission
= means assign permission and remove the permission of unspecified fields
Permission r=Read, w=write, x=Execute, s=set uid bit, t=sticky bit
u=user, g=group, o=other, l=mandatory locking


chmod 777 /home/cx/etc

In the above example, 777 means full access to user,group and others and /home/cx/etc is directory

The commands can be used to with -R option to perform the command recursively where all the subdirectories and files shall be set with the same permission eg:-

chmod -R 777 /home/cx/etc

The +x option gives everyone to execute the file.

chmod +x /home/cx/etc/script/

More information can be found at the following link:


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